Monthly Archives: November 2019

Svetozar Vukmanović – Tempo

a leading Montenegrin communist and member of the Central Committee of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia. During World War II he served on the Supreme Staff, went on missions to Bulgaria, Greece, and Albania, and became Josip Broz Tito‘s personal representative in the Socialist Republic of Macedonia.

book: How and Why the People’s Liberation Struggle of Greece Met with Defeat

Before his death in 2000, Tempo was very motivated to find out who gave the order to have those 18,000 people executed. He came upon shocking findings – the order was given by some of his closest comrades”.

Earlier, in late 2004, Čedomir Vukmanović said Tempo came upon indisputable proof shortly before his death in 2000, that the orders for mass execution without trial came from the very top of Communist Party of Yugoslavia: “Precisely at that time in May 1945, Edvard Kardelj and Aleksandar Ranković were in Ljubljana. They called Tito and Milovan Đilas, and after short deliberation decision was made to kill everyone except for boys under 18.”

via Svetozar Vukmanović – Wikipedia

Κ. Πατέρας: Συμφώνησε ο Μητσοτάκης στο “αντάλλαγμα” – YouTube

Κ. Πατέρας: Συμφώνησε ο Μητσοτάκης στο “αντάλλαγμα”

via Κ. Πατέρας: Συμφώνησε ο Μητσοτάκης στο “αντάλλαγμα” – YouTube

When We Loved Mussolini | by Adam Tooze | The New York Review of Books

The United States and Fascist Italy: The Rise of American Finance in Europe

by Gian Giacomo Migone, translated from the Italian and with a preface by Molly Tambor
Cambridge University Press,

Antifascism was the founding myth of the Italian republic after 1945.

via When We Loved Mussolini | by Adam Tooze | The New York Review of Books

Did Winston Churchill really praise Benito Mussolini? – Quora

Yes and quite effusively. He said “ I could not help being charmed, like so many other people have been, by his gentle and simple bearing and by his calm, detached poise in spite of so many burdens.” Churchill went on to say if he had been Italian he would have supported Mussolini.

However like most apparently damning statements, you have to understand the context. The occasion was a joint January 1927 press conference in Rome, given by both Churchill and Mussolini. Churchill at the time was Chancelor of the Exchequer – Britain’s Finance Chief. He had just finalised negotiations under which the Italians agreed to pay £592 million (worth $40 billion in today’s money) in disputed war debt, with payments to start in 1930 and continue to 1988.

via Did Winston Churchill really praise Benito Mussolini? – Quora

20 Jan 1927 – MUSSOLINI AND CHURCHILL. – Trove

A Friendly Interview.
Rome, Jan. 13.
The Chancellor of the-Exchequer (Mr.
Winston Churchill) has arrived on a pri-
vate visit. He had an hour’s interview
with Signor Mussolini, the last half of
which was private. The British Ambas-
sador had previously been present. It
is understood that the conversation was
most friendly. Signor Mussolini accom-
panied Mr. Churchill to the doorway and
warmly shook hands with him.
The newspapers emphasise that while
the interview has no political signifi-
cance, it shows the cordiality of Anglo-
Italian relations.

via 20 Jan 1927 – MUSSOLINI AND CHURCHILL. – Trove


With all opposition to the Fascist regime brutally silenced, King Victor Emmanuel III ordered Mussolini to sign a Concordat with the Vatican.
Pope Pius X I.
Pope Pius X I.
Pope from 1922 to 1939.

In February 1929, Mussolini signed the Lateran Accords on behalf of the king.

The Accords gave the Pope 110 acres (0.44 square km) which became known as Vatican City State.

Italy now had 3 rulers: Pope Pius XI, Victor Emmanuel III, and Mussolini.

Mussolini signing the Lateran Accords
Mussolini signing the Lateran Accords
on behalf of the king.

From that time onward, Italy was a triumvirate with 3 rulers: the Pope-king, the king of Italy, and Mussolini. Any creature with 2 head is a monster but this new regime was a cyclops. Immediately after signing the Accords, Mussolini was honored with the flattering title: Knight of the Holy Sepulchre:


Winston Churchill ‘ordered assassination of Mussolini to protect compromising letters’ – Telegraph

Winston Churchill ‘ordered assassination of Mussolini to protect compromising letters’
Winston Churchill ordered the assassination of Benito Mussolini as part of a plot to destroy potentially compromising secret letters he had sent the Italian dictator, a leading French historian has suggested.

via Winston Churchill ‘ordered assassination of Mussolini to protect compromising letters’ – Telegraph

Όταν ο Τσώρτσιλ εξυμνούσε τον Μουσολίνι

Η Ιταλία έδειξε ότι υπάρχει ένας τρόπος να παλέψεις τις ανατρεπτικές δυνάμεις, ένας τρόπος που μπορεί να κινητοποιήσει την πλειοψηφία του κόσμου, η οποία κατάλληλα καθοδηγούμενη, μπορεί να εκτιμήσει και να θελήσει να υπερασπίσει την τιμή και τη σταθερότητα των πολιτισμένων κοινωνιών. Η Ιταλία παρείχε το απαραίτητο αντίδοτο στο ρώσικο δηλητήριο. Από δω και στο εξής, κανένα μεγάλο έθνος δεν θα μείνει χωρίς το έσχατο μέσο προστασίας απέναντι στην ανάπτυξη καρκινωμάτων… Αν ήμουν Ιταλός θα ήμουν με όλη την καρδιά μαζί σας, από την αρχή μέχρι το τέλος, στη θριαμβευτική σας μάχη ενάντια στις βάρβαρες ορέξεις και τα πάθη του Λενινισμού»

via Όταν ο Τσώρτσιλ εξυμνούσε τον Μουσολίνι

Karl Wolff – Wikipedia

In 1945, Wolff under Operation Sunrise took over command and management of intermediaries including Swiss-national Max Waibel, in order to make contact in Switzerland with the headquarters of the U.S. Office of Strategic Services, under Allen W. Dulles as to surrendering the German forces in and around Italy.[25] After initially meeting with Dulles in Lucerne on 8 March 1945, Wolff negotiated the surrender of all German forces in Italy, ending the war there on 29 April, before the war ended in Germany on 2 May 1945

via Karl Wolff – Wikipedia

The OSS and Italian Partisans in World War II Intelligence and Operational Support for the Anti-Nazi Resistance Peter Tompkins

Two of Moscatelli’s brigades set off for Milan, but they encountered strongly armored German forces trying to retreat to the border. By the afternoon of 25 April, they had managed to defeat these German forces, but they still were far from Milan just as Mussolini, outraged at being abandoned by the Germans, secretly headed for escape across the Swiss frontier.

Playing his last card, Mussolini attached himself, along with his girlfriend, Claretta Petacci, to a strong German convoy of 30 SS trucks protected by armored cars heading for the Brenner Pass. Trapped by a Moscatelli roadblock near the lakeside town of Dongo, Mussolini was discovered and executed with his girlfriend on unanimous orders from the partisan high command.


Giacomo Matteotti – Wikipedia

Giacomo Matteotti (Italian pronunciation: [ˈdʒaːkomo matteˈɔtti]; 22 May 1885 – 10 June 1924) was an Italian socialist politician. On 30 May 1924, he openly spoke in the Italian Parliament alleging the Fascists committed fraud in the recently held elections, and denounced the violence they used to gain votes. Eleven days later he was kidnapped and killed by Fascists.

via Giacomo Matteotti – Wikipedia

ΔΗΜΗΤΡΗΣ ΚΑΖΑΚΗΣ: Ποιος αλήθεια δημιουργεί το μεταναστευτικό πρόβλημα στην Ελλάδα;

Αντίθετα για τους εγκλωβισμένους μετανάστες και τους ατακτοποίητους πρόσφυγες η ελληνική κυβέρνηση εισέπραξε συνολικά από την Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση – σύμφωνα πάντα με την Έκθεση – κοντά στο 1 δις ευρώ το διάστημα 2016-2019. Η Έκθεση σημειώνει ότι έως το 2019, η ΕΕ διέθεσε 703 εκατομμύρια ευρώ ως στήριξη έκτακτης ανάγκης στην Ελλάδα και 122 εκατομμύρια ευρώ στην Ιταλία από το Ταμείο Ασύλου, Μετανάστευσης και Ένταξης (EMAS του ΤΑΜΕ), επιπλέον των 328 και 394 εκατομμυρίων ευρώ που τους είχε διαθέσει αντίστοιχα στο πλαίσιο των εθνικών προγραμμάτων του ΤΑΜΕ για την περίοδο 2014-2020.
Κι αυτά είναι μόνο οι επίσημες χρηματοδοτήσεις από την ΕΕ. Αν σ’ αυτά προσθέσετε τις «άτυπες» χρηματοδοτήσεις από την Ύπατη Αρμοστεία του ΟΗΕ και ποικίλους άλλους φορείς, που συντηρούν πλουσιοπάροχα έναν ολόκληρο στρατό ΜΚΟ, μπορεί ακόμη κι ο πιο ανόητος να αντιληφθεί ότι ο εγκλωβισμός των μεταναστών συνιστά μια ολόκληρη βιομηχανία με μεγάλες απολαβές. Μαζί βέβαια με τις αντίστοιχες εθνικές χρηματοδοτήσεις, που συμπληρώνουν τις ευρωπαϊκές.

via ΔΗΜΗΤΡΗΣ ΚΑΖΑΚΗΣ: Ποιος αλήθεια δημιουργεί το μεταναστευτικό πρόβλημα στην Ελλάδα;

Το χρονικό των κομμένων κεφαλών | Κίνηση «Απελάστε το Ρατσισμό»

Εν όψει των επικείμενων εκλογών και του δημοψηφίσματος για τον βασιλιά το δεξιό παρακράτος οργίαζε σε όλη την ελληνική επικράτεια. Θάνατοι, βασανισμοί και επίδειξη κομμένων κεφαλιών με ζουρνάδες και νταούλια. Το χρονικό της μαύρης αθλιότητας συνεχίσθηκε και κατά την διάρκεια του εμφυλίου. Ένοπλες μονάδες των ΜΑΥ και παρακρατικές συμμορίες τρομοκρατούσαν τον κόσμο και περιέφεραν τα μακάβρια τρόπαια τους από πόλη σε πόλη.

Για το χρονικό των κομμένων κεφαλών υπάρχουν λίγα και αποσπασματικά στοιχεία. Η έκταση όμως του κανιβαλισμού ήταν τέτοια που ο ίδιος ο Αμερικάνος πρόξενος στην Ελλάδα, μετά από εικόνες που δημοσιεύτηκαν στις ΗΠΑ, με κομμένα γυναικεία κεφάλια, προέβη σε διάβημα.. Η ελληνική απάντηση ήταν η παρακάτω: » Οι κομμένες κεφαλές και η δημόσια επίδειξή τους αποτελούν ελληνικό έθιμο».
1) Το κεφάλι του Άρη Βελουχιώτη και του πρωτοπαλίκαρού του Τζαβέλλα. Τα δύο κεφάλια εκτέθηκαν σε κοινή θέα σε φανοστάτη της πλατείας Τρικάλων την Δευτέρα 18 Ιουνίου του 1945

via Το χρονικό των κομμένων κεφαλών | Κίνηση «Απελάστε το Ρατσισμό»

ΣΥΡΙΖΑ θα λες και θα κλαις: το ξύλο βγήκε από τον παράδεισο


  • Μιας και μιλάμε για business, η ΝΔ φρόντισε να παράσχει ασυλία στους τραπεζίτες, με τη μετατροπή της απιστίας σε αδίκημα που διώκεται μόνο αν οι τραπεζίτες καταγγείλουν τον εαυτό τους. Παράλληλα επιστρέφει στους οικονομικούς παραβάτες περιουσία 1 δις που είχε δεσμευτεί λόγω της εμπλοκής τους σε υποθέσεις τραπεζικής απιστίας και ξεπλύματος μαύρου χρήματος. Αγιογράφος του κ. Μητσοτάκη πριν τις εκλογές, η ανταποκρίτρια των  Financial Times στην Αθήνα γράφει τώρα ότι η ελληνική κυβέρνηση  απομακρύνεται από τις αυτονόητες διεθνείς πρακτικές και μετατρέπει τη χώρα σε πλυντήριο βρόμικου χρήματος.
  • Ο «Mr Novartis» Κ. Φρουζής είναι ένας από τους ευεργετημένους, καθώς θα αποδεσμεύονται οι λογαριασμοί του στην Ελβετία, ύψους εκατομμυρίων ευρώ. Ο κ. Φρουζής, ο οποίος στην προανακριτική για Παπαγγελόπουλο – Novartis  υπέπεσε σε πλήθος αντιφάσεων, παραδέχτηκε μεταξύ άλλων, ότι διοργάνωσε δείπνο υποστήριξης για την υποψηφιότητα Μητσοτάκη. Ο  πρωθυπουργός έχει ισχυριστεί ότι πρόκειται για «απολύτως τυπική και στο πλαίσιο των κοινωνικών του συναναστροφών» σχέση με τον Φρουζή, ο οποίος είχε διατελέσει σύμβουλος της εταιρείας Endeavor, το ελληνικό παράρτημα της οποίας είχε ιδρύσει η σύζυγος του Κυριάκου Μητσοτάκη Μαρέβα Γκραμπόφσκι.


via ΣΥΡΙΖΑ θα λες και θα κλαις: το ξύλο βγήκε από τον παράδεισο

Nomadic universality | Intellectual Commons

via Nomadic universality | Intellectual Commons

Wolfgang Abendroth – 2 – Wikipedia

In 2017 approximately 100,000 pages of documents were leaked to the Süddeutsche Zeitung (SZ) with information related to the activities of Reinhard Gehlen (1902-1979), the post-World War II former head of the German Federal Intelligence Service (BND) and the CIA-affiliated anti-Communist Gehlen Organisation (1946–56). According to the leaked documents Reinhard Gehlen, who was also a prominent Nazi before the war, authorized the conduct of physical surveillance of Prof. Wolfgang Abendroth: “[t]he archive material includes a carefully composed dossier on the lawyer and political scientist Wolfgang Abendroth, who was banned from working as a legal trainee in 1933 due to his socialist leanings. A few years later, Abendroth was sent into a punishment battalion of the Wehrmacht active in the war in Greece.

via Wolfgang Abendroth – Wikipedia

Wolfgang Abendroth 1- German Resistance Memorial Center – Biographie

Wolfgang Abendroth was born in Elberfeld in 1906 and grew up in a family of Social Democrats. His father was a teacher. He joined the Kommunistische Jugend Deutschland (Communist Youth Germany) at the age of 14. As a result of his agitation for a united front of Social Democrats and Communists, he was expelled from the KPD in 1928. In 1933, he lost his job as a junior lawyer for political reasons, and went on to provide legal advice for many opponents of the regime. Following his first arrest, Abendroth emigrated to Switzerland, where he gained his PhD. After acting as a courier for some time, he decided to return to Berlin in 1935. There, he was an active member of the resistance until he was imprisoned for several years in 1937. Forcibly drafted into one of the 999th Division’s “probation units” in February 1943, he soon deserted to the Greek partisan organization “ELAS.” He was taken prisoner by the British, and carried out political education for opponents of the regime in prisoner of war camps in Egypt

via German Resistance Memorial Center – Biographie

How former Nazi official Reinhard Gehlen erected a state within a state in post-war Germany – World Socialist Web Site

The archive material includes a carefully composed dossier on the lawyer and political scientist Wolfgang Abendroth, who was banned from working as a legal trainee in 1933 due to his socialist leanings. A few years later, Abendroth was sent into a punishment battalion of the Wehrmacht active in the war in Greece. He deserted from the Army and joined the Greek resistance movement.

After the war, he commenced teaching as a lecturer at the University of Leipzig. This was sufficient to place him in the first ranks of Gehlen’s list of “enemies of the state.” Abendroth was surrounded by Gehlen’s agents, who diligently sent their observations and notes to Gehlen, all of which are found in the 100,000 files of his private archive.

An open question is how many other cases of BND persecution and harassment of Nazi opponents, socialists and Trotskyists are to be found in the mountain of files.

“Uncontrolled co-ruler of the German Republic”

Probably the most spectacular discovery in this initial review of the archive material is the evidence that the BND planted an informant and probably a provocateur in the leadership of the Social Democratic Party (SPD) at a very early stage. Through the work of his agent, Gehlen was able to observe over many years his most prominent target, SPD leader Willy Brandt, who was foreign minister in the grand coalition (SPD and Christian Democratic Union/Christian Social Union) from 1966 and in 1969 chancellor of the coalition between the SPD and the Free Democratic Party (FDP). As foreign minister, Brandt was spied upon by his own foreign intelligence service

via How former Nazi official Reinhard Gehlen erected a state within a state in post-war Germany – World Socialist Web Site

Max Merten | World War II Database

He was captured by the Americans toward the end of the war, and in Nov 1945 he was officially arrested with accusations of war crimes. A year later, however, he was released by the Greek government. Merten insisted that the anti-Semitic policies had already been in effect prior to his arrival in Greece, and he had little power to alter their course after his arrival. In the 1950s, while on travel to Greece, he was arrested. He was tried in a Greek court, and in 1959 he was found guilty and was given a 25-year prison term. On 3 Nov 1959, he was granted an amnesty by the Greek government and was extradited to West Germany. His release sparked some controversity, with Merten accusing Prime Minister Konstantinos Karamanlis of Greece to have had ties to the German occupation authorities during the WW2 era, which was the reason that led to Merten’s release; both Greek and German authorities regarded Merten’s claims as libelous. He passed away in Germany in 1970.

via Max Merten | World War II Database

Nazi influence on Germany’s post-war government to be investigated | The Independent

The German government has announced an investigation into the influence of the Nazis on the country’s post-war government.

A four-year inquiry will follow 20 other investigations made over the past 70 years to determine how far networks attached to Hitler’s regime reached into the new administration after the fall of the Third Reich.

The probe, which will cost an estimated €4m (£3.4m), will look in particular at how far Nazi influence lingered in the Chancellory – the German equivalent of Downing Street – to see how many staff who worked for the Third Reich remained in the office after 1945, Der Spiegel reported.

In a statement, the cultural ministry said post-war recruitment policies and “the mentality of political culture” will also be looked at, particularly studying the role of Hans Globke, who served as chief of staff to former West German Chancellor Konrad Adenauer between 1953 and 1963.

via Nazi influence on Germany’s post-war government to be investigated | The Independent