Category Archives: 2 – ΚΡΑΤΗ και Περιφερειες (States and Regions)

Svetozar Vukmanović – Tempo

a leading Montenegrin communist and member of the Central Committee of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia. During World War II he served on the Supreme Staff, went on missions to Bulgaria, Greece, and Albania, and became Josip Broz Tito‘s personal representative in the Socialist Republic of Macedonia.

book: How and Why the People’s Liberation Struggle of Greece Met with Defeat

Before his death in 2000, Tempo was very motivated to find out who gave the order to have those 18,000 people executed. He came upon shocking findings – the order was given by some of his closest comrades”.

Earlier, in late 2004, Čedomir Vukmanović said Tempo came upon indisputable proof shortly before his death in 2000, that the orders for mass execution without trial came from the very top of Communist Party of Yugoslavia: “Precisely at that time in May 1945, Edvard Kardelj and Aleksandar Ranković were in Ljubljana. They called Tito and Milovan Đilas, and after short deliberation decision was made to kill everyone except for boys under 18.”

via Svetozar Vukmanović – Wikipedia

When We Loved Mussolini | by Adam Tooze | The New York Review of Books

The United States and Fascist Italy: The Rise of American Finance in Europe

by Gian Giacomo Migone, translated from the Italian and with a preface by Molly Tambor
Cambridge University Press,

Antifascism was the founding myth of the Italian republic after 1945.

via When We Loved Mussolini | by Adam Tooze | The New York Review of Books

Did Winston Churchill really praise Benito Mussolini? – Quora

Yes and quite effusively. He said “ I could not help being charmed, like so many other people have been, by his gentle and simple bearing and by his calm, detached poise in spite of so many burdens.” Churchill went on to say if he had been Italian he would have supported Mussolini.

However like most apparently damning statements, you have to understand the context. The occasion was a joint January 1927 press conference in Rome, given by both Churchill and Mussolini. Churchill at the time was Chancelor of the Exchequer – Britain’s Finance Chief. He had just finalised negotiations under which the Italians agreed to pay £592 million (worth $40 billion in today’s money) in disputed war debt, with payments to start in 1930 and continue to 1988.

via Did Winston Churchill really praise Benito Mussolini? – Quora

20 Jan 1927 – MUSSOLINI AND CHURCHILL. – Trove

MUSSOLINI AND CHURCHILL.
A Friendly Interview.
Rome, Jan. 13.
The Chancellor of the-Exchequer (Mr.
Winston Churchill) has arrived on a pri-
vate visit. He had an hour’s interview
with Signor Mussolini, the last half of
which was private. The British Ambas-
sador had previously been present. It
is understood that the conversation was
most friendly. Signor Mussolini accom-
panied Mr. Churchill to the doorway and
warmly shook hands with him.
The newspapers emphasise that while
the interview has no political signifi-
cance, it shows the cordiality of Anglo-
Italian relations.

via 20 Jan 1927 – MUSSOLINI AND CHURCHILL. – Trove

BRITISH SECRET SERVICE AGENT BENITO MUSSOLINI!!

With all opposition to the Fascist regime brutally silenced, King Victor Emmanuel III ordered Mussolini to sign a Concordat with the Vatican.
Pope Pius X I.
Pope Pius X I.
Pope from 1922 to 1939.

In February 1929, Mussolini signed the Lateran Accords on behalf of the king.

The Accords gave the Pope 110 acres (0.44 square km) which became known as Vatican City State.

Italy now had 3 rulers: Pope Pius XI, Victor Emmanuel III, and Mussolini.

Mussolini signing the Lateran Accords
Mussolini signing the Lateran Accords
on behalf of the king.

From that time onward, Italy was a triumvirate with 3 rulers: the Pope-king, the king of Italy, and Mussolini. Any creature with 2 head is a monster but this new regime was a cyclops. Immediately after signing the Accords, Mussolini was honored with the flattering title: Knight of the Holy Sepulchre:

via BRITISH SECRET SERVICE AGENT BENITO MUSSOLINI!!

Winston Churchill ‘ordered assassination of Mussolini to protect compromising letters’ – Telegraph

Winston Churchill ‘ordered assassination of Mussolini to protect compromising letters’
Winston Churchill ordered the assassination of Benito Mussolini as part of a plot to destroy potentially compromising secret letters he had sent the Italian dictator, a leading French historian has suggested.

via Winston Churchill ‘ordered assassination of Mussolini to protect compromising letters’ – Telegraph

Όταν ο Τσώρτσιλ εξυμνούσε τον Μουσολίνι

Η Ιταλία έδειξε ότι υπάρχει ένας τρόπος να παλέψεις τις ανατρεπτικές δυνάμεις, ένας τρόπος που μπορεί να κινητοποιήσει την πλειοψηφία του κόσμου, η οποία κατάλληλα καθοδηγούμενη, μπορεί να εκτιμήσει και να θελήσει να υπερασπίσει την τιμή και τη σταθερότητα των πολιτισμένων κοινωνιών. Η Ιταλία παρείχε το απαραίτητο αντίδοτο στο ρώσικο δηλητήριο. Από δω και στο εξής, κανένα μεγάλο έθνος δεν θα μείνει χωρίς το έσχατο μέσο προστασίας απέναντι στην ανάπτυξη καρκινωμάτων… Αν ήμουν Ιταλός θα ήμουν με όλη την καρδιά μαζί σας, από την αρχή μέχρι το τέλος, στη θριαμβευτική σας μάχη ενάντια στις βάρβαρες ορέξεις και τα πάθη του Λενινισμού»

via Όταν ο Τσώρτσιλ εξυμνούσε τον Μουσολίνι

Karl Wolff – Wikipedia

In 1945, Wolff under Operation Sunrise took over command and management of intermediaries including Swiss-national Max Waibel, in order to make contact in Switzerland with the headquarters of the U.S. Office of Strategic Services, under Allen W. Dulles as to surrendering the German forces in and around Italy.[25] After initially meeting with Dulles in Lucerne on 8 March 1945, Wolff negotiated the surrender of all German forces in Italy, ending the war there on 29 April, before the war ended in Germany on 2 May 1945

via Karl Wolff – Wikipedia

The OSS and Italian Partisans in World War II Intelligence and Operational Support for the Anti-Nazi Resistance Peter Tompkins

Two of Moscatelli’s brigades set off for Milan, but they encountered strongly armored German forces trying to retreat to the border. By the afternoon of 25 April, they had managed to defeat these German forces, but they still were far from Milan just as Mussolini, outraged at being abandoned by the Germans, secretly headed for escape across the Swiss frontier.

Playing his last card, Mussolini attached himself, along with his girlfriend, Claretta Petacci, to a strong German convoy of 30 SS trucks protected by armored cars heading for the Brenner Pass. Trapped by a Moscatelli roadblock near the lakeside town of Dongo, Mussolini was discovered and executed with his girlfriend on unanimous orders from the partisan high command.

via

Giacomo Matteotti – Wikipedia

Giacomo Matteotti (Italian pronunciation: [ˈdʒaːkomo matteˈɔtti]; 22 May 1885 – 10 June 1924) was an Italian socialist politician. On 30 May 1924, he openly spoke in the Italian Parliament alleging the Fascists committed fraud in the recently held elections, and denounced the violence they used to gain votes. Eleven days later he was kidnapped and killed by Fascists.

via Giacomo Matteotti – Wikipedia

Wolfgang Abendroth – 2 – Wikipedia

In 2017 approximately 100,000 pages of documents were leaked to the Süddeutsche Zeitung (SZ) with information related to the activities of Reinhard Gehlen (1902-1979), the post-World War II former head of the German Federal Intelligence Service (BND) and the CIA-affiliated anti-Communist Gehlen Organisation (1946–56). According to the leaked documents Reinhard Gehlen, who was also a prominent Nazi before the war, authorized the conduct of physical surveillance of Prof. Wolfgang Abendroth: “[t]he archive material includes a carefully composed dossier on the lawyer and political scientist Wolfgang Abendroth, who was banned from working as a legal trainee in 1933 due to his socialist leanings. A few years later, Abendroth was sent into a punishment battalion of the Wehrmacht active in the war in Greece.

via Wolfgang Abendroth – Wikipedia

Wolfgang Abendroth 1- German Resistance Memorial Center – Biographie

Wolfgang Abendroth was born in Elberfeld in 1906 and grew up in a family of Social Democrats. His father was a teacher. He joined the Kommunistische Jugend Deutschland (Communist Youth Germany) at the age of 14. As a result of his agitation for a united front of Social Democrats and Communists, he was expelled from the KPD in 1928. In 1933, he lost his job as a junior lawyer for political reasons, and went on to provide legal advice for many opponents of the regime. Following his first arrest, Abendroth emigrated to Switzerland, where he gained his PhD. After acting as a courier for some time, he decided to return to Berlin in 1935. There, he was an active member of the resistance until he was imprisoned for several years in 1937. Forcibly drafted into one of the 999th Division’s “probation units” in February 1943, he soon deserted to the Greek partisan organization “ELAS.” He was taken prisoner by the British, and carried out political education for opponents of the regime in prisoner of war camps in Egypt

via German Resistance Memorial Center – Biographie

How former Nazi official Reinhard Gehlen erected a state within a state in post-war Germany – World Socialist Web Site

The archive material includes a carefully composed dossier on the lawyer and political scientist Wolfgang Abendroth, who was banned from working as a legal trainee in 1933 due to his socialist leanings. A few years later, Abendroth was sent into a punishment battalion of the Wehrmacht active in the war in Greece. He deserted from the Army and joined the Greek resistance movement.

After the war, he commenced teaching as a lecturer at the University of Leipzig. This was sufficient to place him in the first ranks of Gehlen’s list of “enemies of the state.” Abendroth was surrounded by Gehlen’s agents, who diligently sent their observations and notes to Gehlen, all of which are found in the 100,000 files of his private archive.

An open question is how many other cases of BND persecution and harassment of Nazi opponents, socialists and Trotskyists are to be found in the mountain of files.

“Uncontrolled co-ruler of the German Republic”

Probably the most spectacular discovery in this initial review of the archive material is the evidence that the BND planted an informant and probably a provocateur in the leadership of the Social Democratic Party (SPD) at a very early stage. Through the work of his agent, Gehlen was able to observe over many years his most prominent target, SPD leader Willy Brandt, who was foreign minister in the grand coalition (SPD and Christian Democratic Union/Christian Social Union) from 1966 and in 1969 chancellor of the coalition between the SPD and the Free Democratic Party (FDP). As foreign minister, Brandt was spied upon by his own foreign intelligence service

via How former Nazi official Reinhard Gehlen erected a state within a state in post-war Germany – World Socialist Web Site

Max Merten | World War II Database

He was captured by the Americans toward the end of the war, and in Nov 1945 he was officially arrested with accusations of war crimes. A year later, however, he was released by the Greek government. Merten insisted that the anti-Semitic policies had already been in effect prior to his arrival in Greece, and he had little power to alter their course after his arrival. In the 1950s, while on travel to Greece, he was arrested. He was tried in a Greek court, and in 1959 he was found guilty and was given a 25-year prison term. On 3 Nov 1959, he was granted an amnesty by the Greek government and was extradited to West Germany. His release sparked some controversity, with Merten accusing Prime Minister Konstantinos Karamanlis of Greece to have had ties to the German occupation authorities during the WW2 era, which was the reason that led to Merten’s release; both Greek and German authorities regarded Merten’s claims as libelous. He passed away in Germany in 1970.

via Max Merten | World War II Database

Nazi influence on Germany’s post-war government to be investigated | The Independent

The German government has announced an investigation into the influence of the Nazis on the country’s post-war government.

A four-year inquiry will follow 20 other investigations made over the past 70 years to determine how far networks attached to Hitler’s regime reached into the new administration after the fall of the Third Reich.

The probe, which will cost an estimated €4m (£3.4m), will look in particular at how far Nazi influence lingered in the Chancellory – the German equivalent of Downing Street – to see how many staff who worked for the Third Reich remained in the office after 1945, Der Spiegel reported.

In a statement, the cultural ministry said post-war recruitment policies and “the mentality of political culture” will also be looked at, particularly studying the role of Hans Globke, who served as chief of staff to former West German Chancellor Konrad Adenauer between 1953 and 1963.

via Nazi influence on Germany’s post-war government to be investigated | The Independent

Man whose father saved Jews from Nazis asks Israel to take his name off ‘ethnic cleansing’ memorial | The Independent

The son of a Dutch couple who hid Jewish people from the Nazis during the Holocaust has asked for his father’s name to be removed from a monument built on the site of a destroyed Palestinian village.

Erik Ader, whose parents, Bastiaan Jan and Johanna Ader, are believed to have helped at least 200 Jews escape during World War II, said he considered the monument to be an abuse of his father’s memory and that his family name has been exploited to cover up “an act of ethnic cleansing” of Palestinians.

The former Netherlands ambassador to Norway told Dutch public broadcaster NOS that although he cannot ask his father, who was executed by the Nazis in 1944, what he thinks “of how his name is connected to this injustice,” it is not difficult to guess, “knowing what he stood for”.

via Man whose father saved Jews from Nazis asks Israel to take his name off ‘ethnic cleansing’ memorial | The Independent

Eichmann to Testify on Dr. Globke’s Role in Deportation of Greek Jews – Jewish Telegraphic Agency

Dr. Bauer tied the Globke case to Eichmann today as he opened a formal criminal investigation into the accusations being leveled against the Adenauer aide. Dr. Globke, who is State Secretary, and the man who runs Chancellor Adenauer’s office, is being accused of having aided Eichmann in 1943 in the deportation of 10, 000 Jews from Salonika, Greece, to Nazi extermination camps.

“Eichmann’s testimony about the deportation of those 10, 000 Jewish men, women and children from Salonika would very much affect the Globke investigation, ” Dr. Bauer said. Eichmann, chief Nazi director in the murder of 6, 000, 000 European Jews, is expected to go on trial in Israel in March for his war crimes against the Jewish people.

Another witness being called in his probe in the Globke case, Dr. Bauer said, is Prof. Karl Burkhardt, a Swiss citizen. As representative for the International Red Cross, Dr. Burkhardt, negotiated with the Nazi regime for the transfer of the 10, 000 Salonika Jews to Palestine. Those negotiations were unsuccessful and the Jews were deported to death camps instead.

A third witness being sought by Dr. Bauer is a former officer in the SS, the Hitler Elite Guard in which Eichmann was a colonel. That officer, according to the Attorney General, was in charge of the deportation of Jews from northern Greece. Refusing to reveal the man’s name, “for tactical reasons,” Dr. Bauer said the man had been last known to be living in Syria but had disappeared after the arrest of Eichmann last summer.

via Eichmann to Testify on Dr. Globke’s Role in Deportation of Greek Jews – Jewish Telegraphic Agency

DR. RATH OMILIA ATHINA 30 APRILIOY 2012( me ellinikous ypotitlous) (with Greek subtitles) – YouTube

Ο λόγος του Dr Rath στις 30 Απριλίου 2012 στην Αθήνα. Ποιος ο ρόλος των καρτέλ των φαρμάκων και του πετρελαίου. Η προσπάθεια τους να κατακτήσουν την Ευρώπη και τον κόσμο στο 1ο και 2ο παγκόσμιο πόλεμο.Οι αποδείξεις. Οι ναζιστικές καταβολές της Ευρωπαϊκής Ένωσης των Βρυξελλών και η τρίτη προσπάθεια του καρτέλ να κατακτήσει την Ευρώπη και τον κόσμο.Ο έλεγχος της υγείας και της ενέργειας. Η νέα μετάβαση και πως μπορούν οι λαοί να ανατρέψουν τα σχέδια τους

via DR. RATH OMILIA ATHINA 30 APRILIOY 2012( me ellinikous ypotitlous) (with Greek subtitles) – YouTube

European History – Relay of Life

Click here and here to see excerpts from a book written by Walter Hallstein in 1969. Following his career as a prominent law professor under the Nazis, Hallstein became the key architect of the unelected European Commission and, for ten years, its first President. His book, entitled ‘Europe in the Making’, describes how the European Community’s machinery was developed in such a way that “the Commission is entrusted with what virtually amounts to a monopoly in taking the initiative in all matters affecting the Community.” Moreover, giving a prophetic hint of what the Lisbon Treaty would effectively be intended to accomplish almost forty years later, he specifically states that the few exceptions to this rule “ought to be removed at the earliest opportunity,” and that “the Commission should eventually be empowered to take all measures necessary for the implementation of the Treaty on its own authority, without having to rely on special and specific approval by the Council of Ministers.”

via European History – Relay of Life

From Nuremberg to Brussels – Lecture by Dr. Matthias Rath – Relay of Life

The corporate preparations for World War II started as early as 1925, when Bayer, BASF, Hoechst and other German multinationals formed a cartel called “IG Farben Industry”. The declared goal of this cartel was to obtain control of the global markets in the key industrial sectors of chemistry, pharmaceuticals and petrochemicals. Already in 1925, when this cartel was founded, its corporate value surpassed 11 billion Reichsmark and it employed more than 80,000 people.

via From Nuremberg to Brussels – Lecture by Dr. Matthias Rath – Relay of Life