Category Archives: Europe – South & East

Svetozar Vukmanović – Tempo

a leading Montenegrin communist and member of the Central Committee of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia. During World War II he served on the Supreme Staff, went on missions to Bulgaria, Greece, and Albania, and became Josip Broz Tito‘s personal representative in the Socialist Republic of Macedonia.

book: How and Why the People’s Liberation Struggle of Greece Met with Defeat

Before his death in 2000, Tempo was very motivated to find out who gave the order to have those 18,000 people executed. He came upon shocking findings – the order was given by some of his closest comrades”.

Earlier, in late 2004, Čedomir Vukmanović said Tempo came upon indisputable proof shortly before his death in 2000, that the orders for mass execution without trial came from the very top of Communist Party of Yugoslavia: “Precisely at that time in May 1945, Edvard Kardelj and Aleksandar Ranković were in Ljubljana. They called Tito and Milovan Đilas, and after short deliberation decision was made to kill everyone except for boys under 18.”

via Svetozar Vukmanović – Wikipedia

When We Loved Mussolini | by Adam Tooze | The New York Review of Books

The United States and Fascist Italy: The Rise of American Finance in Europe

by Gian Giacomo Migone, translated from the Italian and with a preface by Molly Tambor
Cambridge University Press,

Antifascism was the founding myth of the Italian republic after 1945.

via When We Loved Mussolini | by Adam Tooze | The New York Review of Books

Did Winston Churchill really praise Benito Mussolini? – Quora

Yes and quite effusively. He said “ I could not help being charmed, like so many other people have been, by his gentle and simple bearing and by his calm, detached poise in spite of so many burdens.” Churchill went on to say if he had been Italian he would have supported Mussolini.

However like most apparently damning statements, you have to understand the context. The occasion was a joint January 1927 press conference in Rome, given by both Churchill and Mussolini. Churchill at the time was Chancelor of the Exchequer – Britain’s Finance Chief. He had just finalised negotiations under which the Italians agreed to pay £592 million (worth $40 billion in today’s money) in disputed war debt, with payments to start in 1930 and continue to 1988.

via Did Winston Churchill really praise Benito Mussolini? – Quora

20 Jan 1927 – MUSSOLINI AND CHURCHILL. – Trove

A Friendly Interview.
Rome, Jan. 13.
The Chancellor of the-Exchequer (Mr.
Winston Churchill) has arrived on a pri-
vate visit. He had an hour’s interview
with Signor Mussolini, the last half of
which was private. The British Ambas-
sador had previously been present. It
is understood that the conversation was
most friendly. Signor Mussolini accom-
panied Mr. Churchill to the doorway and
warmly shook hands with him.
The newspapers emphasise that while
the interview has no political signifi-
cance, it shows the cordiality of Anglo-
Italian relations.

via 20 Jan 1927 – MUSSOLINI AND CHURCHILL. – Trove


With all opposition to the Fascist regime brutally silenced, King Victor Emmanuel III ordered Mussolini to sign a Concordat with the Vatican.
Pope Pius X I.
Pope Pius X I.
Pope from 1922 to 1939.

In February 1929, Mussolini signed the Lateran Accords on behalf of the king.

The Accords gave the Pope 110 acres (0.44 square km) which became known as Vatican City State.

Italy now had 3 rulers: Pope Pius XI, Victor Emmanuel III, and Mussolini.

Mussolini signing the Lateran Accords
Mussolini signing the Lateran Accords
on behalf of the king.

From that time onward, Italy was a triumvirate with 3 rulers: the Pope-king, the king of Italy, and Mussolini. Any creature with 2 head is a monster but this new regime was a cyclops. Immediately after signing the Accords, Mussolini was honored with the flattering title: Knight of the Holy Sepulchre:


Winston Churchill ‘ordered assassination of Mussolini to protect compromising letters’ – Telegraph

Winston Churchill ‘ordered assassination of Mussolini to protect compromising letters’
Winston Churchill ordered the assassination of Benito Mussolini as part of a plot to destroy potentially compromising secret letters he had sent the Italian dictator, a leading French historian has suggested.

via Winston Churchill ‘ordered assassination of Mussolini to protect compromising letters’ – Telegraph

Όταν ο Τσώρτσιλ εξυμνούσε τον Μουσολίνι

Η Ιταλία έδειξε ότι υπάρχει ένας τρόπος να παλέψεις τις ανατρεπτικές δυνάμεις, ένας τρόπος που μπορεί να κινητοποιήσει την πλειοψηφία του κόσμου, η οποία κατάλληλα καθοδηγούμενη, μπορεί να εκτιμήσει και να θελήσει να υπερασπίσει την τιμή και τη σταθερότητα των πολιτισμένων κοινωνιών. Η Ιταλία παρείχε το απαραίτητο αντίδοτο στο ρώσικο δηλητήριο. Από δω και στο εξής, κανένα μεγάλο έθνος δεν θα μείνει χωρίς το έσχατο μέσο προστασίας απέναντι στην ανάπτυξη καρκινωμάτων… Αν ήμουν Ιταλός θα ήμουν με όλη την καρδιά μαζί σας, από την αρχή μέχρι το τέλος, στη θριαμβευτική σας μάχη ενάντια στις βάρβαρες ορέξεις και τα πάθη του Λενινισμού»

via Όταν ο Τσώρτσιλ εξυμνούσε τον Μουσολίνι

Karl Wolff – Wikipedia

In 1945, Wolff under Operation Sunrise took over command and management of intermediaries including Swiss-national Max Waibel, in order to make contact in Switzerland with the headquarters of the U.S. Office of Strategic Services, under Allen W. Dulles as to surrendering the German forces in and around Italy.[25] After initially meeting with Dulles in Lucerne on 8 March 1945, Wolff negotiated the surrender of all German forces in Italy, ending the war there on 29 April, before the war ended in Germany on 2 May 1945

via Karl Wolff – Wikipedia

The OSS and Italian Partisans in World War II Intelligence and Operational Support for the Anti-Nazi Resistance Peter Tompkins

Two of Moscatelli’s brigades set off for Milan, but they encountered strongly armored German forces trying to retreat to the border. By the afternoon of 25 April, they had managed to defeat these German forces, but they still were far from Milan just as Mussolini, outraged at being abandoned by the Germans, secretly headed for escape across the Swiss frontier.

Playing his last card, Mussolini attached himself, along with his girlfriend, Claretta Petacci, to a strong German convoy of 30 SS trucks protected by armored cars heading for the Brenner Pass. Trapped by a Moscatelli roadblock near the lakeside town of Dongo, Mussolini was discovered and executed with his girlfriend on unanimous orders from the partisan high command.


Giacomo Matteotti – Wikipedia

Giacomo Matteotti (Italian pronunciation: [ˈdʒaːkomo matteˈɔtti]; 22 May 1885 – 10 June 1924) was an Italian socialist politician. On 30 May 1924, he openly spoke in the Italian Parliament alleging the Fascists committed fraud in the recently held elections, and denounced the violence they used to gain votes. Eleven days later he was kidnapped and killed by Fascists.

via Giacomo Matteotti – Wikipedia

Η πορτογαλική οικονομία ξανά στις ράγες και ο κίνδυνος εκτροχιασμού | Euronews

Η χώρα αναπτύχθηκε κυρίως χάρη στις επενδύσεις της στον τουρσμό, τις εξαγωγές και το real estate. Η αποκορύφωση ηρθε το 2017. Τότε η Τράπεζα της Πορτογαλίας προέβλεψε ανάπτυξη πάνω από 3,5% όταν είχαμε ακόμα και ύφεση άνω του 4% πέντε χρόνια πριν. Η ανεργία έπεσε επίσης από το 16% το 2013 στο 7% πέρυσι. Μέσα σε σχεδόν μια δεκαετία, το 10% του ελλείμματος του προϋπολογισμού εξαλείφθηκε. Ο στόχος για το τρέχον έτος 2019 είναι 0,2% του ΑΕΠ. Όμως το δημόσιο χρέος παραμένει ένα από τα υψηλότερα της ΕΕ. Μόνο η Ελλάδα και η Ιταλία έχουν πιο υψηλά.

Η κατάσταση δείχνει υπό έλεγχο αλλά το ζωνάρι παραμένει σφιχτό, η φορολογία έχει φτάσει στο υψηλότερο επίπεδο διαχρονικά και οι δημόσιες επενδύσεις είναι περιορισμένες. Ο Τιάγκο Καϊάδο, δικηγόρος που ειδικεύεται στις φορολογικές υποθέσεις, υποστηρίζει: «Δεν υπάρχουν δημόσιες επενδύσεις, που συνήθως βοηθούν στο να τονωθεί η οικονομία, ούτε όμως υπάρχουν επενδύσεις σε άλλους τομείς. Εάν ο οικονομικός κύκλος αντιστραφεί, καθώς υπάρχει μια τεράστια δημόσια δαπάνη που έχει πλέον συγκεντρώσει ακόμα μεγαλύτερο βάρος, και αν υπάρξει ύφεση, και εφόσον δεν υπάρχει περιθώριο αυξήσεων στη φορολογία, τότε θα βρεθούμε σε μια εξαιρετικά εύθραυστη κατάσταση».

via Η πορτογαλική οικονομία ξανά στις ράγες και ο κίνδυνος εκτροχιασμού | Euronews

Οι διορισμένοι δισεκατομμυριούχοι της Ρωσίας

Όπως δήλωσε ο τραπεζίτης Petr Aven, «Για να γίνουμε εκατομμυριούχοι στη χώρα μας, δεν είναι καθόλου απαραίτητο να έχουμε εξειδικευμένες γνώσεις. Συχνά αρκεί να υπάρχει ενεργή υποστήριξη στην κυβέρνηση, στο κοινοβούλιο, στις τοπικές δομές εξουσίας και στις υπηρεσίες επιβολής του νόμου. Μια ωραία μέρα, η ασήμαντη εταιρεία σας είναι εξουσιοδοτημένη, για παράδειγμα, να κάνει επιχειρήσεις με κονδύλια του προϋπολογισμού. Με άλλα λόγια, διορίζεται κάποιος εκατομμυριούχος».

Σύμφωνα και με το άρθρο της Le Monde diplomatique, λίγο μετά την ανάληψη της εξουσίας ως πρόεδρος το 2000, ο Πούτιν προήδρευσε μιας άνευ προηγουμένου άνθησής τους, με τους δισεκατομμυριούχους να πολλαπλασιάζονται.

Αυτό που άλλαξε με τον Πούτιν σε σύγκριση με τον προκάτοχό του δεν ήταν η δυνατότητα προσωπικού πλουτισμού, αλλά τα πρόσωπα εκείνων που επωφελήθηκαν και η σχέση τους με το κράτος. Οι ολιγάρχες της εποχής του Γέλτσιν ήταν κυρίως εκτός του κρατικού μηχανισμού, οι οποίοι εκμεταλλεύονταν τα συμπτώματα της δυσλειτουργίας του, τα χρόνια του Πούτιν όμως ήταν «εσωτερικοί», άνθρωποι κοντά στο Κρεμλίνο, οι οποίοι εκμεταλλεύτηκαν κρατική εξουσία για να αποκτήσουν τον έλεγχο των περιουσιακών της στοιχείων.

via Οι διορισμένοι δισεκατομμυριούχοι της Ρωσίας

Brexit: An unorthodox view, Yanis Varoufakis, Srećko Horvat & Elif Shafak (full) – YouTube

Srećko Horvat, a Croat philosopher, Elif Shafak, renowned Turkish novelist, and Yanis Varoufakis, Greece’s former finance minister, bring to this conversation an intriguing perspective. As intellectuals who know Britain well, they understand first hand the perils of nationalism, disintegration, isolationism and marginalisation. They place post-Brexit Britain in a context informed by a view of Europe and Britain from the continent’s opposite ‘corner’, sharing insights from Greece’s tensions with Brussels and Berlin, Yugoslavia’s disintegration, and Turkey’s fraught relationship with a Europe that both courts and marginalises it. (A Guardian Live event with three of DiEM25’s Coordinating Collective)

via Brexit: An unorthodox view, Yanis Varoufakis, Srećko Horvat & Elif Shafak (full) – YouTube

Wikileaks: The IMF’s Fault for Balkan Wars :: Balkan Insight

In the document from 2009, titled Europe Analytical Guidance, Stratfor alerts its analysts to watch out for any possible riots occurring due to economic crises, since the current situation in Balkans is complex and multifaceted.

“Do not forget, the IMF austerity measures imposed on Yugoslavia were in part to blame for the start of the war there. We need to be aware of any economically motivated social discontent,” document states.

Analysts should pay attention to any possible protest and union activity since, according to Stratfor, the protests by Albanian unions inflamed further conflicts.

“Remember, it was the strikes by the Albanian miners in Kosovo back in the 1980s that in a way moved the region towards conflagration,” states the document.

When it comes to possible conflicts and security issues, the report finds Bosnia and Herzegovina most critical. “Any split developing in the Croatian-Muslim federation is key,” it states.

According to the e-mails from Stratfor revealed by Wikileaks, several journalists from the Balkan media have been working for this intelligence agency, including Veran Matic, head of the Belgrade based media B92, and Bosko Jaksic of Politika newspaper.

Stratfor’s computers were apparently invaded last year by the hacker group Anonymous, which revealed personal information of Stratfor’s customers.

via Wikileaks: The IMF’s Fault for Balkan Wars :: Balkan Insight

Why is NATO in Yugoslavia? by Sean Gervasi

This study is based on a paper presented to a Prague conference in January, 1996. Much of what the late Sean Gervasi says here has proven prophetic. His intelligence and compassion are sorely missed.

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization has recently sent a large task force into Yugoslavia, ostensibly to enforce a settlement of the Bosnian war arrived at in Dayton, Ohio at the end of 1995. This task force is said to consist of some 60,000 men, equipped with tanks, armor and artillery. It is backed by formidable air and naval forces. In fact, if one takes account of all the support forces involved, including forces deployed in nearby countries, it is clear that on the order of one hundred and fifty thousand troops are involved. This figure has been confirmed by U.S. defense sources.(1)

via Why is NATO in Yugoslavia? by Sean Gervasi

Percentages agreement

Churchill called it a “naughty document”.[5]

Regarding its import, Gabriel Kolko writes:

There is little significance to the memorable and dramatic passage in Churchill’s autobiography recalling how he and Stalin divided Eastern Europe … Stalin’s “tick,” translated into real words, indicated nothing whatsoever. The very next day Churchill sent Stalin a draft of the discussion, and the Russian carefully struck out phrases implying the creation of spheres of influence, a fact Churchill excluded from his memoirs. Eden assiduously avoided the term, and considered the understanding merely as a practical agreement on how problems would be worked out in each country, and the very next day he and Molotov modified the percentages in a manner which Eden assumed was general rather than precise.[8]

Geoffrey Roberts says similarly of the agreement: “It’s a good story but, like so many of Churchill’s tales, the lily was somewhat gilded.”[9]

Henry Butterfield Ryan states, however, that “Eden and Molotov haggled over these quantities as though they were bargaining over a rug in a bazaar, with Molotov trying, eventually successfully, to trim Britain’s figures.”[2]

Stalin did keep to his promise about Greece, but did not keep his promise for Romania, Bulgaria, and Hungary, which became one-party communist states with no British influence. Yugoslavia became a non-aligned communist state with very limited Soviet or British influence. Britain supported the Greek government forces in the civil war but the Soviet Union did not assist the communist guerrillas.[10]

A draft of the agreement, which was yet to be made in 1944, appeared under strange circumstances when it was supposedly intercepted in 1943 and fell into the hands of Spanish dictator Francisco Franco’s secret service. This was mentioned by General Jordana, in a famous speech he gave in April 1943 in Barcelona.[11]

via Percentages agreement

148a. ΟΙ ΕΛΛΗΝΕΣ ΤΗΣ ΤΑΣΚΕΝΔΗΣ & Η ΠΟΛΗ ΤΗΣ ΠΕΤΡΑΣ: Greeks of Tashkent, Tashkent – YouTube

via 148a. ΟΙ ΕΛΛΗΝΕΣ ΤΗΣ ΤΑΣΚΕΝΔΗΣ & Η ΠΟΛΗ ΤΗΣ ΠΕΤΡΑΣ: Greeks of Tashkent, Tashkent – YouTube

Έλληνες πολιτικοί πρόσφυγες στην Τασκένδη 1950 1960 Video Dailymotion – YouTube

via Έλληνες πολιτικοί πρόσφυγες στην Τασκένδη 1950 1960 Video Dailymotion – YouTube

The Real Cause of the Italian Bank Bailouts and Euro Banking Troubles

The clear winner of the banking union has been the German banking system: All German banks, but especially the small and medium ones, who benefitted from the establishment of a 30 billion euro balance sheet floor for banks to be subjected to ECB supervision. To obtain such condition as part of the first pillar, German minister of Finance Wolfgang Schäuble threatened to veto the banking union project as a whole, and it is no mystery that he was thinking precisely about banks such as the relative small Sparkassen (savings banks).

Of the 417 Sparkassen, only one is under the supervision of the ECB today; we are talking about banks that count for the 22.3% of the loans in that country for a total of 1000 billion euro.

But this is not the only way these public banks, traditionally tied to the German ruling party CDU, were protected. At least two other ways deserve mention.

The first is how the so-called Institutional Protection Schemes (IPS) were kept outside the European regulation. IPS are systems of mutual protection and guarantees of the associate banks, regulated via a contract. They exist in Germany (Sparkassen and Volksbanken), Austria (Raiffeisen banks) and Spain (saving banks). IPS aren‘t banking groups, nor banks networks. Hence, they are not directly under the European discipline—the European Directive on capital requirements [CRD IV] does not even mention them—nor the Basel Accords. This is how Thomas Stern, expert for banking regulation at the Austrian Financial Markets Authorities, characterized the situation: “The decision of the European legislator to not extend the regulation about capital and liquidity to the IPS is remarkable and hard to understand from a prudential point of view.” Stern wrote these lines in 2014, but the situation is hardly improved since then.

via The Real Cause of the Italian Bank Bailouts and Euro Banking Troubles