Category Archives: Ιστορια

When We Loved Mussolini | by Adam Tooze | The New York Review of Books

The United States and Fascist Italy: The Rise of American Finance in Europe

by Gian Giacomo Migone, translated from the Italian and with a preface by Molly Tambor
Cambridge University Press,

Antifascism was the founding myth of the Italian republic after 1945.

via When We Loved Mussolini | by Adam Tooze | The New York Review of Books

Did Winston Churchill really praise Benito Mussolini? – Quora

Yes and quite effusively. He said “ I could not help being charmed, like so many other people have been, by his gentle and simple bearing and by his calm, detached poise in spite of so many burdens.” Churchill went on to say if he had been Italian he would have supported Mussolini.

However like most apparently damning statements, you have to understand the context. The occasion was a joint January 1927 press conference in Rome, given by both Churchill and Mussolini. Churchill at the time was Chancelor of the Exchequer – Britain’s Finance Chief. He had just finalised negotiations under which the Italians agreed to pay £592 million (worth $40 billion in today’s money) in disputed war debt, with payments to start in 1930 and continue to 1988.

via Did Winston Churchill really praise Benito Mussolini? – Quora

How former Nazi official Reinhard Gehlen erected a state within a state in post-war Germany – World Socialist Web Site

The archive material includes a carefully composed dossier on the lawyer and political scientist Wolfgang Abendroth, who was banned from working as a legal trainee in 1933 due to his socialist leanings. A few years later, Abendroth was sent into a punishment battalion of the Wehrmacht active in the war in Greece. He deserted from the Army and joined the Greek resistance movement.

After the war, he commenced teaching as a lecturer at the University of Leipzig. This was sufficient to place him in the first ranks of Gehlen’s list of “enemies of the state.” Abendroth was surrounded by Gehlen’s agents, who diligently sent their observations and notes to Gehlen, all of which are found in the 100,000 files of his private archive.

An open question is how many other cases of BND persecution and harassment of Nazi opponents, socialists and Trotskyists are to be found in the mountain of files.

“Uncontrolled co-ruler of the German Republic”

Probably the most spectacular discovery in this initial review of the archive material is the evidence that the BND planted an informant and probably a provocateur in the leadership of the Social Democratic Party (SPD) at a very early stage. Through the work of his agent, Gehlen was able to observe over many years his most prominent target, SPD leader Willy Brandt, who was foreign minister in the grand coalition (SPD and Christian Democratic Union/Christian Social Union) from 1966 and in 1969 chancellor of the coalition between the SPD and the Free Democratic Party (FDP). As foreign minister, Brandt was spied upon by his own foreign intelligence service

via How former Nazi official Reinhard Gehlen erected a state within a state in post-war Germany – World Socialist Web Site

Nazi influence on Germany’s post-war government to be investigated | The Independent

The German government has announced an investigation into the influence of the Nazis on the country’s post-war government.

A four-year inquiry will follow 20 other investigations made over the past 70 years to determine how far networks attached to Hitler’s regime reached into the new administration after the fall of the Third Reich.

The probe, which will cost an estimated €4m (£3.4m), will look in particular at how far Nazi influence lingered in the Chancellory – the German equivalent of Downing Street – to see how many staff who worked for the Third Reich remained in the office after 1945, Der Spiegel reported.

In a statement, the cultural ministry said post-war recruitment policies and “the mentality of political culture” will also be looked at, particularly studying the role of Hans Globke, who served as chief of staff to former West German Chancellor Konrad Adenauer between 1953 and 1963.

via Nazi influence on Germany’s post-war government to be investigated | The Independent

Eichmann to Testify on Dr. Globke’s Role in Deportation of Greek Jews – Jewish Telegraphic Agency

Dr. Bauer tied the Globke case to Eichmann today as he opened a formal criminal investigation into the accusations being leveled against the Adenauer aide. Dr. Globke, who is State Secretary, and the man who runs Chancellor Adenauer’s office, is being accused of having aided Eichmann in 1943 in the deportation of 10, 000 Jews from Salonika, Greece, to Nazi extermination camps.

“Eichmann’s testimony about the deportation of those 10, 000 Jewish men, women and children from Salonika would very much affect the Globke investigation, ” Dr. Bauer said. Eichmann, chief Nazi director in the murder of 6, 000, 000 European Jews, is expected to go on trial in Israel in March for his war crimes against the Jewish people.

Another witness being called in his probe in the Globke case, Dr. Bauer said, is Prof. Karl Burkhardt, a Swiss citizen. As representative for the International Red Cross, Dr. Burkhardt, negotiated with the Nazi regime for the transfer of the 10, 000 Salonika Jews to Palestine. Those negotiations were unsuccessful and the Jews were deported to death camps instead.

A third witness being sought by Dr. Bauer is a former officer in the SS, the Hitler Elite Guard in which Eichmann was a colonel. That officer, according to the Attorney General, was in charge of the deportation of Jews from northern Greece. Refusing to reveal the man’s name, “for tactical reasons,” Dr. Bauer said the man had been last known to be living in Syria but had disappeared after the arrest of Eichmann last summer.

via Eichmann to Testify on Dr. Globke’s Role in Deportation of Greek Jews – Jewish Telegraphic Agency

DR. RATH OMILIA ATHINA 30 APRILIOY 2012( me ellinikous ypotitlous) (with Greek subtitles) – YouTube

Ο λόγος του Dr Rath στις 30 Απριλίου 2012 στην Αθήνα. Ποιος ο ρόλος των καρτέλ των φαρμάκων και του πετρελαίου. Η προσπάθεια τους να κατακτήσουν την Ευρώπη και τον κόσμο στο 1ο και 2ο παγκόσμιο πόλεμο.Οι αποδείξεις. Οι ναζιστικές καταβολές της Ευρωπαϊκής Ένωσης των Βρυξελλών και η τρίτη προσπάθεια του καρτέλ να κατακτήσει την Ευρώπη και τον κόσμο.Ο έλεγχος της υγείας και της ενέργειας. Η νέα μετάβαση και πως μπορούν οι λαοί να ανατρέψουν τα σχέδια τους

via DR. RATH OMILIA ATHINA 30 APRILIOY 2012( me ellinikous ypotitlous) (with Greek subtitles) – YouTube

European History – Relay of Life

Click here and here to see excerpts from a book written by Walter Hallstein in 1969. Following his career as a prominent law professor under the Nazis, Hallstein became the key architect of the unelected European Commission and, for ten years, its first President. His book, entitled ‘Europe in the Making’, describes how the European Community’s machinery was developed in such a way that “the Commission is entrusted with what virtually amounts to a monopoly in taking the initiative in all matters affecting the Community.” Moreover, giving a prophetic hint of what the Lisbon Treaty would effectively be intended to accomplish almost forty years later, he specifically states that the few exceptions to this rule “ought to be removed at the earliest opportunity,” and that “the Commission should eventually be empowered to take all measures necessary for the implementation of the Treaty on its own authority, without having to rely on special and specific approval by the Council of Ministers.”

via European History – Relay of Life

From Nuremberg to Brussels – Lecture by Dr. Matthias Rath – Relay of Life

The corporate preparations for World War II started as early as 1925, when Bayer, BASF, Hoechst and other German multinationals formed a cartel called “IG Farben Industry”. The declared goal of this cartel was to obtain control of the global markets in the key industrial sectors of chemistry, pharmaceuticals and petrochemicals. Already in 1925, when this cartel was founded, its corporate value surpassed 11 billion Reichsmark and it employed more than 80,000 people.

via From Nuremberg to Brussels – Lecture by Dr. Matthias Rath – Relay of Life

Hans Globke – Wikipedia

Hans Josef Maria Globke (10 September 1898 – 13 February 1973) was a German lawyer, high-ranking civil servant and politician who served as Under-Secretary of State and Chief of Staff of the German Chancellery in West Germany from 28 October 1953 to 15 October 1963. During World War II, Globke, a Ministerialdirigent in the Office for Jewish Affairs in the Ministry of the Interior, wrote a legal annotation on the anti-semitic Nuremberg Race Laws that did not express any objection to the discrimination against Jews, and placed the Nazi Party on a firmer legal ground, setting the path to The Holocaust.[1] Globke later had a controversial career as Secretary of State and Chief of Staff of the West German Chancellery.

via Hans Globke – Wikipedia

Carlota — The Female Soldier – Cuban revolutionary slave

Despite this Carlota continued to organise the uprising. Known for both her intelligence and musical skill, she sent coded messages using talking drums to coordinate a series of attacks. As the drums were a traditional instrument among the West African slaves, the Spanish were unaware that the music was also being used a form of communication. On November 3rd 1843, Carlota led a raid which freed Fermina and a dozen other slaves from captivity. On November 5th the uprising began by at the Triumvirato and Acane sugar plantations, forcibly overthrowing the Spanish owners. These attacks were led personally by Carlota, who went into battle wielding a machete.

via Carlota — The Female Soldier

Slave rebellion – Wikipedia

The most successful slave rebellion in history was the 18th-century Haitian Revolution, led by Toussaint Louverture and later Jean-Jacques Dessalines who won the war against their French colonial rulers, which founded the country formerly known as Saint Domingue. Other famous historic slave rebellions have been led by the Roman slave Spartacus (c. 73–71 BC), as well as the thrall (Scandinavian slave) Tunni, who rebelled against the Swedish monarch Ongentheow, a rebellion that needed Danish assistance to be quelled.

via Slave rebellion – Wikipedia

The Nazi Roots of the ‘Brussels EU’ – Dr. Rath Health Foundation

Dr. Rath has become a voice of conscience exposing the global conquest plans of the chemical/pharmaceutical Cartel in our time. Attacked by Cartel media the world over, Dr. Rath and his Foundation have received prestigous awards for civil courage. The ‘Relay of Life’ Award – presented by survivors of the KZ Auschwitz and other Nazi concentration camps was conferred with the mandate: ‘Never again!’

On Monday, December 10, 2012, the so-called ‘Brussels EU’ received the Nobel Peace Prize – allegedly for preserving peace in Europe. Now that the dust has settled, the people of the world deserve to learn the facts behind this PR event:

The ‘Brussels EU’ is not a democratic body. Neither its president nor its executive body, the so-called ‘EU Commission’ can be elected – or unelected – by the people.

via The Nazi Roots of the ‘Brussels EU’ – Dr. Rath Health Foundation

Όταν η Bayer αγόρασε «παρτίδες» γυναικών από το Άουσβιτς

Στη διάρκεια του ναζιστικού καθεστώτος, η Bayer, θυγατρική της χημικής κοινοπραξίας IG Farben (1), προχώρησε πράγματι σε ιατρικά πειράματα σε κρατούμενους, τους οποίους προμηθευόταν κυρίως από τα στρατόπεδα συγκέντρωσης.

Βρήκαμε στο τεύχος του Φεβρουάριου 1947 του Patriote Résistant (ο Αντιστασιακός Πατριώτης) αποσπάσματα από πέντε επιστολές που απέστειλε ο οίκος Bayer στον διοικητή του στρατοπέδου του Άουσβιτς. Είχαν δημοσιευθεί σε ένα άρθρο που μιλούσε για μερικά από τα αδικήματα της γερμανικής βιομηχανίας κάτω από το ναζισμό -ενώ γινόταν η δίκη της στο δικαστήριο της Νυρεμβέργης.

Τα γράμματα, που βρέθηκαν κατά την απελευθέρωση του Άουσβιτς από τον Κόκκινο Στρατό, φέρουν ημερομηνίες Απρίλιος – Μάιος 1943. Απαλλάσσονται από κάθε σχολιασμό.

Πρώτο γράμμα :
«Για να τεστάρουμε ένα υπνωτικό φάρμακο, θα ήταν δυνατόν να μας διαθέσετε μερικές γυναίκες; και κάτω από ποιες συνθήκες; όλες οι διατυπώσεις για τη μεταφορά αυτών των γυναικών θα γίνουν από εμάς».

Δεύτερη επιστολή :
«Σας ενημερώνουμε ότι παραλάβαμε την επιστολή σας. θεωρούμε υπερβολική την τιμή των 200 μάρκων, προσφέρουμε 170 μάρκα ανά υποκείμενο, θα χρειαστούμε 150 γυναίκες»

via Όταν η Bayer αγόρασε «παρτίδες» γυναικών από το Άουσβιτς

Όταν η Ελλάδα κούρευε το χρέος της Γερμανίας

Η διαπραγμάτευση κράτησε έως τις 8 Αυγούστου του 1953. Τότε υπεγράφη η περίφημη συμφωνία του Λονδίνου για τα Εξωτερικά Χρέη της Γερμανίας – γνωστή ως London Agreement on German External Debts. Ηταν η συμφωνία που προέβλεπε «κούρεμα» του γερμανικού χρέους κατά 60% και αποπληρωμή του, με ρήτρα εμπορικού πλεονάσματος, σε 30 χρόνια.

Πρόκειται για την πιο ριζική και γενναιόδωρη διαγραφή χρέους που έχει γίνει ποτέ, καθώς πέραν του άμεσου κουρέματος στους όρους της αποπληρωμής μπήκε και ρήτρα εμπορικού πλεονάσματος: Η αποπληρωμή του εναπομείναντος χρέους θα γινόταν μόνον εάν η Γερμανία θα είχε εμπορικό πλεόνασμα και οι καταβολές δεν θα ξεπερνούσαν το 3% των εσόδων της από τις εξαγωγές. Εν ολίγοις, οι πιστωτές είχαν συμφέρον να αγοράζουν τα εξαγωγικά προϊόντα της χρεοκοπήμένης Γερμανίας για να πάρουν τα – μισά έστω – χρήματά τους πίσω.

via Όταν η Ελλάδα κούρευε το χρέος της Γερμανίας

Guardian: Τι πραγματικά πιστεύει η Τερέζα Μέι για το Brexit | TVXS – TV Χωρίς Σύνορα

Η Τερέζα Μέι είχε προειδοποιήσει με μεγάλη σαφήνεια για τους κινδύνους που θα διέτρεχε η Βρετανία σε περίπτωση εξόδου από την Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση σε ιδιωτική ομιλία της στις 26 Μαΐου ενώπιον των στελεχών της μεγάλης επενδυτικής τράπεζας Goldman Sacks λίγες εβδομάδες πριν από το δημοψήφισμα που έκρινε το μέλλον της χώρας της, αποκαλύπτει σήμερα ο Guardian.

via Guardian: Τι πραγματικά πιστεύει η Τερέζα Μέι για το Brexit | TVXS – TV Χωρίς Σύνορα

History of the Paris Commune of 1871 by Lissagaray

Lissagaray 1876
History of the Paris Commune
of 1871
Translated from the French by Eleanor Marx

via History of the Paris Commune of 1871 by Lissagaray

Why I Am Leaving Goldman Sachs – The New York Times

It makes me ill how callously people talk about ripping their clients off. Over the last 12 months I have seen five different managing directors refer to their own clients as “muppets,” sometimes over internal e-mail. Even after the S.E.C., Fabulous Fab, Abacus, God’s work, Carl Levin, Vampire Squids? No humility? I mean, come on. Integrity? It is eroding. I don’t know of any illegal behavior, but will people push the envelope and pitch lucrative and complicated products to clients even if they are not the simplest investments or the ones most directly aligned with the client’s goals? Absolutely. Every day, in fact.

via Why I Am Leaving Goldman Sachs – The New York Times

The History Of Greek Sovereign Debt Defaults | Investopedia

The Greek War of Independence began in 1821 and targeted the end of Ottoman authority, which had ruled most of that region for centuries. In 1824, a loan of 472,000 pounds was secured on the London Stock Exchange to continue this fight. This offering was oversubscribed and buyers were required to put down only 10% of the purchase price with a promise to pay the balance over time. An additional loan of 1.1 million pounds was floated in 1825.

The unfortunate fact about these two loans was that speculators and middlemen in London skimmed off much of the proceeds before Greece received any funds. Another issue was that the Greek War of Independence soon descended into civil war between rival factions, making it difficult to even figure out who should receive these funds.

No interest payments were ever made to the bondholders on these two loans, and the value of the paper eventually plummeted to a fraction of the par value. It wasn’t until 1878 that the Greek government settled on the loans, which by then with accrued interest had increased to over 10 million pounds.

via The History Of Greek Sovereign Debt Defaults | Investopedia

Handelsblatt: Οι τράπεζες και όχι η Ελλάδα σώθηκαν με τα μνημονιακά δάνεια – Η Αυγή Online

«Με τα πακέτα βοήθειας σώθηκαν κυρίως ευρωπαϊκές τράπεζες» δηλώνει στην Handelsblatt ο διευθυντής της ESMT, Γιοργκ Ρόχολ, ο οποίος συμμετέχει και στο γνωμοδοτικό συμβούλιο του γερμανικού Υπουργείου Οικονομικών. Σύμφωνα με την έρευνα, 86,9 δισ. ευρώ πήγαν στην εξόφληση παλαιών χρεών, 52,3 δισ. για εξόφληση τόκων και 37,3 δισ. για την επανακεφαλαιοποίηση των ελληνικών τραπεζών.

Η “Ευρωπαϊκή Σχολής Μάνατζμεντ και Τεχνολογίας” (ESMT) του Βερολίνου προσκομίζει για πρώτη φορά στην 24σέλιδη έρευνα ένα λεπτομερή υπολογισμό: Οι οικονομολόγοι της ανέλυσαν κάθε ένα δάνειο ξεχωριστά επί βδομάδες για να διαπιστώσουν που πήγαν τα λεφτά. Το συμπέρασμα είναι αποκαλυπτικό: μόνο 9,7 δισ., δηλαδή λιγότερο από το 5% μπήκαν στον ελληνικό προϋπολογισμό και επομένως ήταν προς όφελος των πολιτών. Το μεγαλύτερο μέρος χρησιμοποιήθηκε για την εξυπηρέτηση παλαιών οφειλών και την πληρωμή των τόκων.

via Handelsblatt: Οι τράπεζες και όχι η Ελλάδα σώθηκαν με τα μνημονιακά δάνεια – Η Αυγή Online

Handelsblatt: Με τα μνημονιακά δάνεια σώθηκαν οι ευρωπαϊκές τράπεζες, όχι η Ελλάδα | TVXS – TV Χωρίς Σύνορα

Λιγότερο από το 5% των δανείων, ύψους 220 δισεκατομμυρίων ευρώ, που δόθηκαν για τη σωτηρία της Ελλάδας στα πέντε πρώτα χρόνια των μνημονίων, κατέληξαν στον ελληνικό προϋπολογισμό, ενώ τα υπόλοιπα πήγαν στη διάσωση των ευρωπαϊκών τραπεζών, σύμφωνα με 24σέλιδη έρευνα της «Ευρωπαϊκής Σχολής Μάνατζμεντ και Τεχνολογίας» (ESMT) του Βερολίνου, η οποία δημοσιεύεται, κατ΄αποκλειστικότητα, σήμερα από την έγκυρη γερμανική οικονομική εφημερίδα Handelsblatt.

via Handelsblatt: Με τα μνημονιακά δάνεια σώθηκαν οι ευρωπαϊκές τράπεζες, όχι η Ελλάδα | TVXS – TV Χωρίς Σύνορα